What Is It?
Ultimately, the person with AD dies, often years earlier than he/she would have otherwise. In most people with AD, symptoms first appear after age 60. The brains of people with AD have an abundance of two abnormal structures—amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. A third characteristic change is the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Learn more.
Who Gets It?
Alzheimer's disease becomes more common as people get older. Today it affects more than 5.3 million Americans, according to estimates from the Alzheimer's Association. As the baby-boom generation moves through retirement, that number could soar to more than 11 million by 2040. One out of eight people age 65 or older has Alzheimer's. The number of people with the disease doubles for every 5-year age interval beyond age 65. Learn more.
Who Is At Risk?
Age is the best established risk factor for Alzheimer's. The genetic make-up inherited from parents may also influence risk of developing the disease, and when. Other non-genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors might play a role in brain health and the development or prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these can be controlled or mitigated, including physical activity, diet, control of chronic diseases, social engagement, and intellectual stimulation. Learn more.
How Can People Find Out If They Have It?
People who are concerned about a serious memory problem should talk with their doctor. The doctor may be able to diagnose the problem or make a referral to a specialist in neurology or geriatric psychiatry. Health care professionals who specialize in Alzheimer's can recommend ways to manage the problem or suggest treatment or services that might help. Learn more.
Can It Be Treated?
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but current treatments focus on helping people maintain mental function, manage behavioral symptoms, and slow or delay symptoms. Four medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat AD. These drugs don't change the underlying disease process and may help only for a few months to a few years.
Behavioral symptoms may accompany memory problems and can include sleeplessness, agitation, wandering, anxiety, anger, and depression. Scientists are studying new treatments to manage them. Treating behavioral symptoms often makes people with AD more comfortable and makes their care easier for caregivers. Learn more.
Who Else Is Affected?
There are nearly 10 million Americans providing 8.5 billion hours of unpaid care to people with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias - time valued at $94 billion, according to the Alzheimer's Association. Seventy percent of people with Alzheimer's live at home, cared for by family and friends. The largest group of family caregivers is spouses, followed by daughters, daughters-in-law, sons, siblings, and grandchildren. About three in five caregivers say their children aged 8 to 21 are involved in caring for a loved one with Alzheimer's disease, according to a 2008 Harris Interactive poll.
In addition to the families and friends, our society as a whole is affected. Today, the direct costs to Medicare and Medicaid for care of people with Alzheimer's and other dementias and the indirect costs to business for employees who are caring for Alzheimer's are estimated at more than $148 billion annually. Learn more.
Can It Be Prevented?
No treatments or drugs have yet been proven to prevent or delay AD, but people can take some actions that are beneficial for healthy aging and that also might reduce the effect of possible risk factors for AD. You can exercise regularly, eat a healthy diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables, engage in social and intellectually stimulating activities, control type 2 diabetes, lower high blood pressure levels, lower high blood cholesterol levels, and maintain a healthy weight. These actions lower the risk of other diseases and help maintain and improve overall health and well-being, but will not necessarily prevent or delay AD in any one person. Even if these actions were eventually proven effective, they might not offset a person's individual genetic and other risk factors enough to prevent the development of AD. Learn more.
What's Being Done About It?
Thirty years ago, we knew very little about AD. Since then, scientific research - supported by the National Institute on Aging and other components of the National Institutes of Health, the Alzheimer's Association, and other organizations - has led to important advances in our knowledge about AD and to the development of promising new drugs and treatment strategies. Today, scientists are investigating many approaches to treat, prevent, or cure Alzheimer's, with 91 drugs in clinical trials as of 2008 and more in the pipeline awaiting FDA approval to enter human testing. Learn more.
How Can I Help?
Clinical trials to test new treatments and interventions are an essential part of AD research. At least 50,000 volunteers, both with and without Alzheimer's, are urgently needed to participate in more than 175 actively enrolling Alzheimer's disease trials and studies in the U.S. To reach that goal, at least half a million volunteers must be screened. To find out more, contact the National Institute on Aging's Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center at 1-800-438-4380 or at the website www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers.
There are many ways to join the fight against Alzheimer's disease, such as participating in research, supporting people with the disease with donations of time, help, or money, and other activities. To find out more, you can contact the Alzheimer's Association, which invites the public to become "Alzheimer's Advocates," at 1-800-272-3900 or at the website www.alz.org.
Need More Information?
Visit our collaborators' websites to learn more:
- Hope in Science
Scientists have made great advances in understanding the cause, diagnosis, and possible treatments of Alzheimer's disease. Find out more.
- Momentum in Science: The Supplementary Series
As part of The Alzheimer's Project, 15 supplemental films provide an in-depth look into the scientific advances being made in research and medical understanding of the disease. Find out more
- Want to better understand Alzheimer's Disease?
Know the 10 Signs of Alzheimer's
Along with the advice of a doctor, these signs are critical to detecting Alzheimer's.
The Alzheimer's Association 24/7 Helpline provides reliable information and support to all those who need assistance. Call us toll-free anytime day or night at 1-800-272-3900.
Connect with Alzheimer's Research
Find out how you can participate in clinical trials or studies, find a research center, or get up-to-date information at 1-800-438-4380.
Create A Tribute
Honor someone you care about and share your stories by contributing to The Tribute Wall on Facebook.
The Alzheimer's Association message boards and chat rooms are your online communication forum. Share your thoughts and experiences, query your colleagues, and make new friends.
Rock Stars of Science
Our most brilliant scientific minds are dedicated to finding cures for the diseases that threaten our future, and America’s most celebrated Rock Stars stand behind them.
- Today, Alzheimer's is the second most-feared illness in America, following cancer, and may affect as many as five million Americans. As the baby-boom generation reaches retirement, that number could soar to more than 11 million by 2040.
- One out of eight people age 65 or older has Alzheimer's. The number of people with the disease doubles for every 5-year age interval beyond age 65.
- 54% of the adult U.S. population has been touched by Alzheimer's. Read more.